inference in linguistics
• The main kinds of inferences relevant in linguistics (in particular semantics and pragmatics) are: Chierchia, Gennaro and Sally McConnell-Ginet (1996) Meaning and Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics, Chapters 1-3. MIT Press.
The Science of Linguistics. Éric Laporte. Linguistics / Review Essay / Vol. 1, No. 2. Éric Laporte is a Professor of Computer Science and Linguistics at Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée.. Article Review Essay Topic Linguistics Issue Volume 1, Issue 2 March 2015 Share Facebook
Finally, I argue for a new concept, I-inference, which is the process a hearer employs to retrieve an implicature. This provides a way to distinguish inferences made based on what a hearer believes a speaker to have meant to communicate from inferences based on personal observations.
Pragmatic Referece and Inference. The key process here is called inference. An inference is any additional information used by the hearer to connect what is said to what must be meant. In • example (2), the hearer has to infer that the name of the writer of a book can be used to identify a book by that writer.
Examples of inference can make the concept more clear. The term ” inference ” refers to the process of using observation and background knowledge as well as other known premises to determine a conclusion that makes sense.
Inference. Human inference (i.e. how humans draw conclusions) is traditionally studied within the field of cognitive psychology; artificial intelligence researchers develop automated inference systems to emulate human inference. Statistical inference uses mathematics to draw …
An assumption or conclusion that is rationally and logically made, based on the given facts or circumstances. An inference is based off of facts, so the reasoning for the conclusion is often logical. “Before she was weighed at the gym, Jill made an inference about Susan’s weight based on her knowledge of Susan’s eating and workout habits.”
The influence of one language on another in the speech of bilinguals is relevant both to the field of second language acquisition (where the interference from the learner’s native language is studied) and to the field of historical linguistics (where the effects of interference on language change are studied).
Language transfer. Language transfer (also known as L1 interference, linguistic interference, and crosslinguistic influence) refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from one language to another language. It is the transfer of linguistic features between languages in the speech repertoire of a bilingual or multilingual individual,
Examples: inference in a Sentence. 1 : the act or process of inferring (see infer): such as. a : the act of passing from one proposition, statement, or judgment considered as true to another whose truth is believed to follow from that of the former.
REFERENCE AND INFERENCE REFERRING EXPRESSIONS Proper Nouns Shakespeare Hawaii Noun Phrases Definite the author the singer Indefinite a man a beautiful place Pronouns The choice of one type of referring expression rather than another seems to be based on what the speaker assumes. Get started. Pricing Log in. Discover.
Reference and Inference. You have already come across the notion of reference in the section on Semantics where it was contrasted to sense, and defined as the relation between the linguistic expression and the entity in the real world to which it refers. However, words themselves actually do not refer to anything but the people using them.
These inferences are partly determined by the linguistic form that the writer or speaker chooses to give to her utterance. The inferences can be about the state of the world that the speaker or writer wants the hearer or reader to conclude are pertinent, or they can be about the attitude of the speaker or writer vis-à-vis this state of affairs.
ductive inference. In each case, the hearer infers something that was not contained directly in the semantics of the input utterance. That makes them an excellent pair of examples of these two different ways of looking at computational linguistics. The next section introduces a version of the inferential model called the PLAN IN-